Renee E. and Robert A. Belfer Chair in Developmental Biology
Growth Factors and Signaling in Development:
CSF-1 Biology: Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a growth factor which regulates the production of mononuclear phagocytes, osteoclasts, Paneth cells and the function of certain non-mononuclear phagocytic cell types in the female reproductive tract. It is expressed as a secreted glycoprotein, secreted proteoglycan or a membrane-spanning, cell-surface glycoprotein. Its effects are mediated via a receptor tyrosine kinase, the c-fms protooncoprotein. CSF-1-deficient mice are osteopetrotic due to a lack of osteoclasts, have poor fertility and several other defects related to CSF-1 regulation of macrophages that have critical scavenger and trophic roles in the development, maintenance or function of tissues in which they reside. CSF-1R-deficient mice have a more severe phenotype than CSF-1-deficient mice, due to the existence of a second CSF-1R ligand, interleukin-34 (IL-34). IL-34 is highly expressed in brain where, with CSF-1, it regulates the development and maintenance of microglia and the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. CSF-1R regulation of macrophages is also important in innate immunity, gut development, inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, obesity, cognitive disorders and within tumors, for tumor progression and metastasis. Autocrine regulation by CSF-1 has been demonstrated in leukemia and solid tumors. Mouse genetic and other approaches are being taken to investigate the developmental and physiological roles of CSF-1 and IL-34, as well as their roles in disease development.
CSF-1 signal transduction: Since phosphorylation of specific CSF-1R intracellular domain tyrosine residues initiate particular signaling pathways, detailed structure-function studies of the CSF-1R are being carried out in macrophages and macrophage progenitor cells. In the analysis of very early post-receptor events, proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated in tyrosine in response to CSF-1 or associated with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, approximately 800 in all, have been identified by mass spectrometry. A combination of genetic, proteomic, biochemical and analytical imaging approaches are being used to elucidate the roles and interactions of these signaling proteins in the immediate post-receptor events in CSF-1 signal transduction. Previous studies have identified and elucidated the actions of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, that negatively affects cell survival in the absence of CSF-1, the cbl proto-oncogene product, that negatively regulates CSF-1 proliferation signaling by enhancing CSF-1R endocytosis and the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-phi, that mediates CSF-1-induced morphological changes, adhesion and motility, via its action on a specific substrate, paxillin. Current work is focused on Dok-1, that regulates macrophage motility and the macrophage F-actin associated and tyrosine phosphorylated protein (MAYP/PSTPIP2). PSTPIP2 is an F-BAR protein that coordinates processes involving the cell membrane and actin cytoskeleton. It is a negative feedback regulator of CSF-1R-mediated osteoclast and macrophage production and loss-of-function mutations in PSTPIP2 lead to an autoinflammatory disease involving these cell types.
Signaling by the Shark tyrosine kinase: Embryonic dorsal closure in Drosophila is a series of morphogenetic movements involving the bilateral dorsal movement of the epidermis (cell stretching) and dorsal suturing of the leading edge cells to enclose the viscera. The Syk family tyrosine kinase, Shark, is expressed in the epidermis and plays a crucial role in this Jun kinase-dependent process where, with the adapter, Ddok, it acts upstream of JNK in leading edge cells. Shark is also expressed by glial cells, where it functions downstream of the Draper receptor and Src42A to regulate the recognition and engulfment of dying neuronal cells. Mutations in the genes for Shark-interacting proteins, coupled with cell biological approaches, are being used to define Shark function and the Shark signaling pathways.
Cecchini, M.G., Dominguez, M.G., Mocci, S., Wetterwald, A., Felix, R., Fleisch, H., Chisholm, O., Pollard, J.W., Hofstetter, W. and Stanley, E.R. (1994) Role of colony stimulating factor-1 in the establishment and regulation of tissue macrophages during post natal development of the mouse. Development 120:1357-1372.
Dai, X-M., Ryan, G.R., Hapel, A.J., Dominguez, M.G., Kapp, S., Sylvestre, V. and Stanley, E.R. (2001) Targeted disruption of the mouse CSF-1 receptor gene results in osteopetrosis, mononuclear phagocyte deficiency, increased splenic progenitor cell frequencies and reproductive defects. Blood 99:111-120.
Dai X-M, Zong XH, Sylvestre V and Stanley ER. (2004) Incomplete restoration of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) function in CSF-1-deficient Csf1op/Csf1op mice by transgenic expression of cell surface CSF-1. Blood 103: 1114-1123.
Nandi, S., Akhter, M.P., Seifert, M.F., Dai, X-M. and Stanley, E.R. (2006). Developmental and functional significance of the CSF-1 proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate chain. Blood 107(2):786-795.
Huynh, D., Dai, X-M., Nandi, S., Lightowler, S., Trivett, M., Chan, C-K., Bertoncello, I., Ramsay, R.G. and Stanley, E.R. (2009). CSF-1 dependence of Paneth cell development in the mouse small intestine. Gastroenterology 137(1):136-144.
Yeung, Y-G. and Stanley, E.R. (2003) Proteomic approaches to analysis of the early events in CSF-1 signal transduction. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 2: 1143-1155
Wei, S., Nandi, S., Chitu, V., Yeung, Y-G., Yu, W., Huang, M., Williams, L.T., Lin, H. and Stanley, E.R. (2010). Functional overlap but differential expression of CSF-1 and IL-34 in their CSF-1 receptor-mediated regulation of myeloid cells. J Leukoc. Biol. 88(3):495-505.
Ginhoux, F., Greter, M., Leboeuf, M., Nandi, S., See, P., Gokhan, S., Mehler, M.F., Ng, L.G., Stanley, E.R., Samokhvalov, I.M. and Merad, M. Fate mapping studies reveal that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages. Science 330(6005):841-845.
Nandi, S., Gokhan,S., Dai, X-M., Wei, S., Enikolopov, G., Lin,H., Mehler, M.F. and Stanley E.R. (2012). The CSF-1 receptor ligands IL-34 and CSF-1 exhibit distinct developmental brain expression patterns and regulate neural progenitor cell maintenance and maturation. Developmental Biology 367:100-13. PMID: 22542597.
Wang, Y., Yeung, Y.G., Langdon, W.Y. and Stanley, E.R. (1996) c-Cbl Is Transiently Tyrosine phosphorylated, Ubiquitinated, and Membrane-targeted following CSF-1 Stimulation of Macrophages. J. Biol. Chem. 271:17-20.
Lee, P.S.W., Wang, Y., Dominguez, M.G., Yeung, Y-G., Murphy, M.A. Bowtell, D.D.L. and Stanley, E.R. (1999) The Cbl protooncoprotein stimulates CSF-1 receptor multiubiquitination and endocytosis, and attenuates macrophage proliferation. EMBO J. 18:3616-3628.
Yeung, Y.G., Soldera, S. and Stanley, E.R. (1998) A novel macrophage actin-associated protein (MAYP) is tyrosine phosphorylated following CSF-1 stimulation. J. Biol. Chem. 273:30638 30642.
Chitu, V., Pixley, F.J., Yeung, Y.G., Macaluso, F., Condeelis, J and Stanley, E.R. (2005). The PCH family member MAYP/PSTPIP2 directly regulates F-actin bundling and enhances filopodia formation and motility in macrophages. Mol. Biol. Cell. 16(6):2947-2959.
Grosse, J., Chitu, V., Marquardt, A., Hanke, P., Schmittwolf, C., Zeitlmann, L., Schropp, P., Barth, B., Yu, P., Paffenholz, R., Stumm, G., Nehls M., and Stanley E. R. (2006). Mutation of mouse MAYP/PSTPIP2 causes a macrophage autoinflammatory disease. Blood 107(8):3350-3358.
Chitu, V. and Stanley E. R. (2006). Colony stimulating factor-1 in immunity and inflammation. Current Opinion in Immunology 18(1):39-48.
Chitu, V. and Stanley, E.R. (2007). Pombe Cdc15 homology (PCH) proteins: coordinators of membrane-cytoskeletal interactions. Trends in Cell Biol. 17(3):145-156.
Chitu V., Nacu, V., Charles, J.F., Henne, W.M., McMahon, H.T., Nandi, S., Ketchum, H., Harris, R., Nakamura, M.C., Stanley, E.R. (2012) PSTPIP2 deficiency in mice causes osteopenia and increased differentiation of multipotent myeloid precursors into osteoclasts. Blood, in press.
Pixley, F.J., Lee, P.S.W., Condeelis, J. and Stanley, E.R. (2001) Protein tyrosine phosphatase phi regulates paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates Colony Stimulating Factor 1 induced morphological changes in macrophages. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21:1795-1809.
Wyckoff, J., Wang, W., Lin, E.L., Wang, Y., Pixley, F.J., Stanley, E.R., Graf, T., Pollard, J.W., Segall, J. and Condeelis, J. (2004). A paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is required for tumor cell migration in mammary tumors. Cancer Res. 64(19):7022-7029.
Patsialou, A., Wyckoff, J., Wang, Y., Goswami, S., Stanley, E.R. and Condeelis J.S. (2009). Invasion of human breast cancer cells in vivo requires both paracrine and autocrine loops involving the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor. Cancer Research 69(24):9498-9506.
Pixley, F.J. and Stanley, E.R. (2004) CSF-1 Regulation of the Wandering Macrophage: Complexity in action. Trends in Cell Biol. 14:628-638.
Xiong, Y., Song, D., Cai, Y., Yu, W., Yeung, Y.G., and Stanley, E.R. (2010). A CSF-1 receptor phosphotyrosine 559 signaling pathway regulates receptor ubiquitination and tyrosine phosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem. 286(2):952-960.
Sampaio, N., Yu, W., Cox, D., Wyckoff, J., Condeelis, J., Stanley, E.R. and Pixley, F.J. (2011). Phosphorylation of Y721 of the CSF-1R mediates PI3K association to regulate macrophage motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion. J. Cell Sci. 124(Pt 12):2021-2031.
Yu, W., Chen, J., X. Ying, Pixley, F.J., Yeung, Y.G., and Stanley, E.R. (2012). Macrophage proliferation is regulated through CSF-1 receptor tyrosines 544, 559 and 807. J. Biol.Chem. 287:13694-704. PMID: 22375015.
Fernandez, R., Takahashi, F., Liu, Z., Steward, R., Stein, D. and Stanley, E.R. (2000) The Drosophila Shark tyrosine kinase is required for embryonic dorsal closure. Genes and Development 14:604-614.
Biswas, R., Stein, D. and Stanley, E.R (2006). Drosophila Dok is required for embryonic dorsal closure. Development 133(2):217-227.
Zeigenfuss, J.S.*, Biswas, R.*, Avery, M.A., Sheehan, A.E., Hong, K., Yeung Y-G., Stanley, E.R.** and Freeman, M.R.** (2008). Draper-dependent glial phagocytic activity is mediated by Src and Syk family kinase signaling. Nature 453(7197):935-939.
More Information About Dr. E. Richard Stanley
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Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus
1300 Morris Park Avenue
Chanin Building, Room 507
Bronx, NY 10461