Marquee Middle Image

Faculty Profile

Sophie Molholm, Ph.D.

Dr. Sophie Molholm

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics

Associate Professor, Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience

Muriel and Harold Block Faculty Scholar in Mental Illness, Department of Pediatrics

 

Professional Interests

I am interested in how the human brain processes and integrates sensory inputs to impact perception and behavior, and the role of attention therein. My work involves characterizing these processes in healthy adults, charting their developmental course over childhood, and translating these findings to understand the neurobiology of developmental disorders, with an emphasis on autism. Non-invasive high-density recordings of the electrical activity of the brain, intracranial recordings in patients, psychophysics, and magnetic resonance imaging are my primary tools of investigation. I have funding for my research from NIMH, NSF, and private foundations. 

I also direct the Human Clinical Phenotyping Core, of the Einstein IDDRC. The core includes a staff of clinical neuropsychologists and a database manager, and serves to recruit and characterize participants for Einstein studies.  The core maintains a large database of potential research participants.  This is composed largely of children, including those with a diagnosis of dyslexia, autism, and RETT syndrome, as well as healthy controls. See the core webpage for more information: http://www.einstein.yu.edu/centers/iddrc/iddrc.aspx?id=30133&ekmensel=15074e5e_4332_4335_btnlinkHumanee.

 

 

Selected Publications

  1. Gomes, H., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Kurtzberg, D., Cowan, N., & Vaughan, H. G., Jr.  (2000).  Mismatch negativity in children and adults, and effects of an attended task.  Psychophysiology, 37, 807-816.
  2. Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Murray, M.M., Javitt, D.C., Schroeder, C.E., & Foxe. J.J. (2002).  Multisensory auditory-visual interactions during early sensory processing in humans: a high-density electrical mapping study.  Cognitive Brain Research, 14, 115-129.
  3. Ritter, W., Sussman, E., & Molholm, S., & Foxe, J.J. (2002).  Memory reactivation or reinstatement and the mismatch negativity.  Psychophysiology, 39, 158-165.
  4. Tartter, V.C., Gomes, H., Dubrovsky, B., Molholm, S., & Vala Stewart, R. (2002).  Novel metaphors appear anomalous at least momentarily:  Evidence from N400.  Brain and Language, 80, 488-509.
  5. Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2004).  Visual-Auditory Multisensory Object Recognition in Humans:  A High-density Electrophysiological study.  Cerebral Cortex, 14, 452-465.
  6. Molholm, S.,Gomes, H., Lobosco, Deacon, D., & Ritter, W. (2004).  Feature versus gestalt representation of stimuli in the mismatch negativity system of 7-to-9 year old children.  Psychophysiology, 41, 385-393.
  7. Molholm, S., Martinez, A., Ritter, W., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2005). The neural circuitry of pre-attentive auditory change-detection: An fMRI study of pitch and duration mismatch negativity generators.  Cerebral Cortex, 15, 545-551. 
  8. Murray, M. M., Molholm, S., Michel, C.M., Heslenfeld, D.J., Ritter, W., Javitt, D.C., Schroeder, C.E., & Foxe, J.J. (2005).  Grabbing Your Ear: Rapid Auditory-Somatosensory Multisensory Interactions in Low-level Sensory Cortices are not Constrained by Stimulus Alignment.  Cerebral Cortex, 15, 963-974. 
  9. Hester, R., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S., Shpaner, M., & Garavan, H. (2005).  Neural mechanisms involved in error processing:  A comparison of errors made with and without awareness, NeuroImage, 27, 602-608.
  10. Martinez, A., Teder-Sälejärvi, W., Vazquez, M., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Javitt, D.C., Di Russo, F., Worden, M.S., & Hillyard, S.A. (2006). Objects are highlighted by spatial attention.  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 298-310.
  11. Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Javitt, J.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2005).  Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Human Object Recognition Processing: An integrated high-density electrical mapping and functional imaging study of "closure" processes.  NeuroImage, 29, 605-618.
  12. Senkowski, D., Molholm, S., Gomez-Ramirez, M., & Foxe, J.J. (2006). Oscillatory beta activity predicts response speed during a multisensory audiovisual reaction time task: A high-density electrical mapping study.  Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1556-1565.
  13. Magno, E, Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S, Robertson, I.H., & Garavan, H (2006).  The anterior cingulate and error avoidance.  Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4769-4773.
  14. Ritter, W., De Sanctis, P., Molholm, S., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2006) Preattentively grouped tones do not elicit MMN with respect to each other. Psychophysiology, 43, 423-430.
  15. Saint-Amour, D., De Sanctis, P., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., & Foxe, J.J. (2007). Seeing voices: High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis of the multisensory mismatch negativity evoked during the McGurk illusion. Neuropsychologia, 45, 587-597.
  16. Molholm, S., Sehatpour, P., Mehta, A.D., Shpaner, M., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Ortigue, S., Dyke, J.P., Schwartz, T.H., & Foxe, J.J. (2006).  Audio-visual multisensory integration in superior parietal lobule revealed by human intracranial recordings. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96, 721-729.
  17. Senkowski, D., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Lakatos, P., Wylie, G.R., Molholm, S., Schroeder, C.E., & Foxe, J.J. (2007). Multisensory processing and oscillatory activity: analyzing non-linear electrophysiological measures in humans and simians. Experimental Brain Research, 177, 184-195
  18. Leavitt, V.M., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Shpaner, M., Foxe, J.J. (2007).  Auditory processing in schizophrenia during the middle latency period (10-50 milliseconds): High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis reveal subcortical antecedents to early cortical deficits.  Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 32, 339-353.
  19. Molholm, S., Martinez, A., Shpaner, M., Foxe, J.J. (2007).  Object based attention is multisensory: Co-activation of an object’s representations in ignored sensory modalities.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 499-509
  20. Ross, L.A., Saint-Amour, D., Leavitt, V.M., Molholm, S., Javitt, D.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2007). Impaired Multisensory Processing in Schizophrenia: Deficits in Visual Enhancement of Speech Comprehension Under Noisy Environmental Conditions. Schizophrenia Research, 97, 173-183.
  21. Moran, R., Reilly, R.B., Molholm, S., & Foxe, J.J. (2008).  Changes in Effective Connectivity of Human Superior Parietal Lobule under Multisensory and Unisensory Stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 2303-2312.
  22. De Sanctis, F., Ritter, W., Molholm, S., Kelly, S.P., & Foxe, J.J. (2008).  Auditory Scene Analysis: The interaction of stimulation rate and frequency separation on preattentive grouping.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1271-1276.
  23. Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Schwartz, T.H., Mahoney, J.R., Mehta, A. D., Javitt, D.C., Stanton, P.K., & Foxe, J.J. (2008).  Long-range oscillatory coherence across a frontal-occipital-hippocampal brain network during visual object processing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 4399-4404.
  24. Barnett, K.J., Foxe, J.J., Molholm, S., Kelly, S.P., Shalgi, S., Mitchell, K.J., & Newell, F.N. (2008). Differences in early sensory-perceptual processing in synesthesia: a visual evoked potentials study.  NeuroImage, 43, 605-13.
  25. Foxe, J.J., Strugstad, E.C., Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Pasieka, W., Schroeder, C.E., McCourt, M.E. (2008). Parvocellular and magnocellular contributions to the initial generators of the visual evoked potential: high-density electrical mapping of the "C1" component. Brain Topogr. 21:11-21.
  26. Fiebelkorn I.C., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., Mercier, M.M., Snyder, A.C., Molholm, S. (2011).
  27. Ritter, W., Sussman, E., & Molholm, S.  (2000).  Evidence that the mismatch negativity system works on the basis of objects.  NeuroReport, 11, 61-63.
  28. Molholm, S., Gomes, H., & Ritter, W. (2001).  The detection of constancy amidst change:  A dissociation between preattentive and intentional processing.  Psychophysiology, 38, 969-978.
  29. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe, J.J. & Molholm, S. (2009).  Dual Mechanisms for Object Based Cross-Sensory Transfer of Attention:How Much Do Learned Associations Matter?  Cerebral Cortex. 20: 109-20.
  30. De Sanctis, P., Ritter, W., Molholm, S., Shpaner, M., Javitt, D.C. and Foxe, J.J. (2009).  Right hemisphere advantage for auditory temporal discrimination: High-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN).  Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 3:5. Epub 2009 Apr 20.
  31. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe, J. J., Schwartz, T.H., & Molholm, S. (2010). Staying within the lines: the formation of visuospatial boundaries influences multisensory feature integration.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 1737-1743.
  32. Lucan, J., Foxe, J.J., Weisser, V.D., Sathian, K., & Molholm, S. (2010).  Tactile shape discrimination recruits human lateral occipital complex during early perceptual processing. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1813-21.
  33. Russo, N., Foxe, J.J., Brandwein, A., Altschuler, T., Gomes, H., & Molholm, S. (2010). Multisensory processing in children with autism: high-density electrical mapping of auditory-somatosensory integration.  Autism Research, 3, 253-67.
  34. Brandwein, A., Foxe, J.J., Altshuler, T., Gomes, H., & Molholm, S (2010). Tracking the developmental course of auditory-visual multisensory processing in children: A high-density electrophysiological study.  Cerebral Cortex, 21, 1042-55.
  35. Foxe, J.J., Yeap, Sherlyn, Thakore, J.H., Snyder, A., Kelly, S.P., & Molholm, S. (2010).  The N1 auditory evoked potential component as an endophenotype for schizophrenia: High-density electrical mapping in clinically unaffected first-degree relatives, first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients.  European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 261, 331-9.
  36. Butler, J.S., Molholm, S., Fiebelkjorn, I.C., Mercier, M.R., Schwartz, T.H., & Foxe, J.J. (2011).  Common or redundant neural circuits for duration processing across audition and touch. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 3400-6
  37. Banergee, S., Molholm, S, Snyder, A.C., & Foxe, J.J. (2011). Oscillatory alpha-band mechanisms and the deployment of spatial attention to anticipated auditory and visual target locations: Supramodal or sensory-specific control mechanisms? Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 9923-32.
  38. Ross, L., Molholm, S. Blanco, D., Gomez-Ramirez, M, Saint Amour, D., & Foxe, J.J.  (2011). The tuning of multisensory speech perception continues through the late childhood years.  European Journal of Neuroscience,  33, 2329-37.
  39. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., & Molholm, S. (2011). Auditory Facilitation of Visual-Target Detection Persists Regardless of Retinal Eccentricity and Despite Wide Audiovisual Misalignments. Experimental Brain Research, 213, 167-74.
  40. Fiebelkorn I.C., Foxe, J.J., Butler, J.S., Mercier, M.M., Snyder, A.C., Molholm, S. (2011). Ready, Set, Reset: Stimulus-Locked Periodicity in Behavioral Performance Demonstrates the Consequences of Cross-sensory Phase Reset.  Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 9971-81
  41. Leavitt, V.M., Molholm, S., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Foxe, J.J. "What" and "where" in auditory sensory processing: a high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization (2011). Front Integr Neurosci. 2011;5:23. Epub 2011 Jun 22.
  42. Gomes, H., Duff, M., Ramos, M., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Halperin, J. (2011). Auditory Selective Attention and Processing in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology, Aug 10, Epub ahead of print.
  43. Gomez-Ramirez, M., Kelly, S.P., Molholm, S., Sehatpour, P., Schwartz, T.H., & Foxe, J.J. (2011).  Oscillatory Sensory Selection Mechanisms during Intersensory Attention to Rhythmic Auditory and Visual Inputs: A Human Electro-Corticographic Investigation.  Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 18556-67.
  44. Altschuler, T., Molholm, S, Russo, N., Snyder, A., Brandwein, A.; Blanco, D., & Foxe, J. (2011). Early Electrophysiological Indices Of Illusory Contour Processing Within The Lateral Occipital Complex Are Virtually Impervious To Large-Scale Manipulations Of Illusion Strength.  NeuroImage, 59. 4074-85.
  45. Snyder, A., Shpaner, M., Molholm, S. & Foxe, J.J. (2012).  Visual object processing as a function of stimulus energy, retinal eccentricity and Gestalt configuration: a high-density electrical mapping study.  Neuroscience, 221, 1-11.
  46. Butler, J., Foxe, J.J., Fiebelkorn, I.E., Mercier, M., Molholm, S. (2012). Multisensory representation of frequency across audition and touch: High density electrical mapping reveals early sensory-perceptual coupling. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 15338-44.
  47. Fiebelkorn, I.C., Foxe., J.J., McCourt, M.E., Dumas, K.N., & Molholm, S. (2012). Atypical Category Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in High-Functioning Children with Autism: Revealed through High-Density EEG Mapping, Cortex, May 3, Epub ahead of print.
  48. Brandwein, A., Foxe, J., Butler, J.,  Russo, N., Altshuler, T., Gomes, H., Molholm, S. (2012). The Development of multisensory integration in high-functioning autism: High-density electrical mapping and psychophysical measures reveal impairments in the processing of audiovisual inputs.  Cerebral Cortex, May 24, Epub ahead of print.
  49. Fiebelkorn, I.E., Snyder, A., Mercier, M., Butler, J., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J..  Cortical cross-freqeuncy coupling predicts perceptual outcomes.  NeuroImage, Nov. 24, Epub ahead of print.
  50. Shpaner, M., Molholm, S., Forde, E-J., & Foxe, J.J.. Disambiguating the roles of area V1 and the lateral occipital complex (LOC) in contour integration.  NeuroImage, Nov. 28, Epub ahead of print.

 

Review Articles, commentaries, and chapters:

 

  1. Gomes, H., Molholm, S., Christodoulou, C., Ritter, W., & Cowan, N. (2000).  The development of auditory attention in children.  Frontiers in Bioscience, 5, d108-120.
  1. Molholm, S. & Foxe, J.J. (2005).  Look 'hear', primary auditory cortex is active during lip-reading.  NeuroReport, 16, 123-124.
  2. Schroeder, C.E.,  Molholm, S., Lakatos, P., Ritter, W., and Foxe, J.J. (2004). Human-Simian correspondence in the early cortical processing of multisensory cues. Cognitive Processing, 5, 140-151.
  3. Foxe, J.J. & Molholm, S. (2009). Ten Years at the Multisensory Forum: Musings on the Evolution of a Field.  Brain Topography.  21: 149-54.
  4. Molholm, S. & Foxe, J.J. (2010).  Making sense of multisensory integration.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 1709-12.
  5. Fiebelkorn, I. Foxe, J.J., & Molholm, S. (2012).  Attention and Multisensory Feature Integration. In Barry Stein (Ed.).  Handbook of Multisensory Processing (pp. 383-396). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  6. Foxe, J.J., Ross, L., & Molholm, S. (2012).  Multisensory Integration Deficits in Schizophrenia.  In Barry Stein (Ed.).  Handbook of Multisensory Processing (pp. 691-706). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. 
 

Material in this section is provided by individual faculty members who are solely responsible for its accuracy and content.

Contact

Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus
1300 Morris Park Avenue
Van Etten, Room 1C-3C
Bronx, NY 10461

Tel: 718.862.1823
Fax: 718.862.1807
sophie.molholm@einstein.yu.edu

 
Collexis Research Profiles
Einstein Research Profiles (ERP) is one of the innovative technologies to create collaborative bridges within and across the entire bench-to-bedside-to-population spectrum of research. The ERP website has been developed in partnership with Collexis to give investigators easy access to PubMed publications, coauthor networks, information about NIH grants, and research networks.

Media Coverage

Time features research led by Dr. Sophie Molholm suggesting that brain scans measuring how quickly children process sensory information could be used to diagnose autism.

NPR’s All Things Considered interviews Dr. Sophie Molholm about her research that uses EEG to demonstrate children with autism take longer to integrate incoming visual and auditory information than typically developing children.

More media coverage