Faculty Profile

Dr. Eno E. Ebong, Ph.D.

Eno E. Ebong, Ph.D.

Visiting Assistant Professor, Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience

Professional Interests

In vascular regions where blood flow is laminar, the endothelial cells that line the inner vessel wall are healthy and the vessel is protected from disease. Disturbed flow, which is low and reciprocating, coincides with dysfunctional endothelial cells and atherosclerotic plaque. The conversion of flow stimuli into endothelial biological events is defined as endothelial mechanotransduction. To increase our understanding of the means by which endothelial cell mechanotransduction occurs in order to prevent or promote atherosclerosis, I am applying my biomedical engineering background to study the structure and function of the endothelial cell surface glycocalyx that directly interfaces with flowing blood and sheds in the presence of atherosclerosis. Previously, it was shown that the endothelial cell surface glycocalyx plays a role in laminar flow-induced nitric oxide release, cytoskeleton reorganization, cell-cell junction changes, and cell shape remodeling. Moving the field forward, I am using cryopreservation (rapid freezing/freeze substitution) and transmission electron microscopy to define the ultrastructure of the endothelial surface glycocalyx and its changes as a result of the macro- or micro-vessel origin and due to the bio-chemical and -mechanical environment. RNA interference techniques, fluorescent intracellular biomarkers, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and protein biochemistry are applied to further clarify the mechanisms by which various flow patterns impact endothelial cell surface glycocalyx ultrastructure, its transduction of fluid forces into biological responses, and its role in vascular health or disease. In vivo studies are performed using high fat fed apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice, a well established animal model of atherosclerosis, to determine which glycocalyx components can be targeted to prevent, diagnose, or treat atherosclerosis.

Training opportunities are available for students interested in both basic and clinical research.

Selected Publications

Russell-Puleri S., dela Paz N.G., Adams  D.,  Chattopadhyay M.,  Cancel L.E., Ebong, E., Orr, A.W., Frangos, J.A., Tarbell, J.M. Fluid shear stress induces upregulation of COX-2 and PGI(2) release in endothelial cells via a pathway involving PECAM-1, PI3K, FAK, and p38. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2017 Mar 1; 312 (3): H485-H500.

Wong W.T., Ma S., Tian X.Y., Gonzalez A.B., Ebong E.E., Shen H. Targeted Delivery of Shear Stress-Inducible Micrornas by Nanoparticles to Prevent Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Lesions. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2016 Sep;12(3):152-156.

Cancel, L.M.*, Ebong, E.E.*, Mensah, S., Hirshberg, C., Tarbell, J.M. Endothelial Glycocalyx, Apoptosis and Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Mouse Model. Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2016 Sep; 252:136-46. *Authors made equal contributions to this work.

Cheng M., Kumar R., Sridhar S., Webster T.J., Ebong E.E. Endothelial glycocalyx conditions influence nanoparticle uptake for passive targeting. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2016 Jul 21;11: 3305-15.

Ebong E.E., Lopez-Quintero S.V., Rizzo V., Spray D.C., Tarbell J.M. Shear-induced endothelial NOS activation and remodeling via heparan sulfate, glypican-1, and syndecan-1. Integr Biol. 2014 Mar; 6(3):338-47.

Zeng Y., Waters M., Andrews A., Honarmandi P., Ebong E.E., Rizzo V., Tarbell J.M. Fluid Shear Stress Induces the Clustering of Heparan Sulfate via Mobility of Glypican-1 in Lipid Rafts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Sep; 305(6):H811-20.

Ebong, E.E., and DePaola, N. Specificity in the Participation of Connexin Proteins in Flow-induced Endothelial Gap Junction Communication. Pflugers Arch. 2013 Sep;465(9):1293-302. 

Thi, M. M., Ebong, E.E., Spray, D.C., Suadicani, S.O. Interaction of the Glycocalyx with the Actin Cytoskeleton. In: Dermietzel R. (ed.), The Cytoskeleton: Imaging, Isolation, and Interaction (Neuromethods), Springer Publishing, 2013 January; 79: 43-62.

Zeng, Y., Ebong, E.E., Fu, B.M., Tarbell, J.M. The Structural Stability of the Endothelial Glycocalyx after Enzymatic Removal of Glycosaminoglycans. PLoS ONE.2012; 7(8): e43168. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Ebong, E.E., Macaluso F., Spray D.C., and Tarbell J.M. Imaging the Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro by Rapid Freezing/Freeze Substitution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Aug; 31(8):1908-15. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Ebong, E.E., Macaluso F., Spray D.C., and Tarbell J.M. Life-like Preservation and TEM visualization of the glycocalyx reveals that it is substantial in vitro. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 37th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2011 April 1-3, 1-2.

Tarbell J.M. and Ebong, E.E. Endothelial Glycocalyx Structure and Role In Mechanotransduction. In: Hsiai T.K., Blackman B., and Jo H. (eds.), Hemodynamics and Mechanobiology, World Scientific Publishing, 2010 October; 69-96.

Ebong E.E., Spray D.C., Tarbell J.M. The Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro: Its Structure and The Role of Heparan Sulfate and Glypican-1 in eNOS Activation by Flow. FASEB J. 2010 April 24 (Meeting Abstract Supplement); 784.8.

Ebong E.E.,SprayD.C., Tarbell J.M. The endothelial glycocalyx: Its structure and role in eNOS mechano-activation. Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE 36th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2010 March 26-28, 1-2.

Ebong E.E., Spray D.C., Tarbell J.M. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx layer in transducing fluid shear stress into intracellular signaling events. Biorheology, 2008, 45(1-2): 66-67.

Tarbell J.M., Ebong E.E. The endothelial glycocalyx: a mechano-sensor and –transducer. Science Signaling. 2008 Oct 7; 1(40):pt8.

Ebong, E.E., Kim S., and DePaola N. Flow Regulates Intercellular Communication in HAEC by Assembling Functional Cx40 and Cx37 Gap Junctional Channels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 May; 290(5):H2015-23. Epub 2005 Dec 16.

Ebong, E.E. and DePaola, N. Endothelial Connexin Expression and Functional Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication are Differentially Regulated by Shear Stress. Proceedings of the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, 2004, p. 430.

Eno Essien Ebong,Natacha DePaola. Dynamic Regulation of Endothelial Intercellular Communication by Shear Stress. Proc. Walter Lincoln Hawkins GRC at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy,NY,2003, p. 11.

Essien, E., Florez, L., and DePaola, N. In vitro flow regulation of gap junction-mediated intercellular coupling and connexin expression in vascular endothelium. Proc. Walter Lincoln Hawkins GRC at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy,NY, 2002, p. 60-61.

More Information About Dr. Eno Ebong

Ebong Mechanobiology Lab

Research To Prevent Atherosclerosis

Material in this section is provided by individual faculty members who are solely responsible for its accuracy and content.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Rose F. Kennedy Center
1410 Pelham Parkway South , Room 840
Bronx, NY 10461

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